Authors
WONG, EVA P. F. BOptom; FRICKE, TIMOTHY R. MScOptom; DINARDO, CARLA BOptom

Interexaminer Repeatability of a New, Modified Prentice Card Compared with Established Phoria Tests

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Abstract/Introduction

Purpose. 

The Howell phoria card, a new modification of the Prentice design, has no previously published validity or reliability data. The purpose of this study was to compare the interexaminer repeatability of the Howell phoria card with established tests.

 

Method. 

Experienced optometrists measured the near heterophoria of 72 subjects. Heterophoria was measured in a pseudo-random order using five standardized procedures: (1) Howell phoria card continuous presentation, (2) Howell phoria card flashed presentation, (3) free-space von Graefe method, 4) Bernell Muscle Imbalance Measure (MIM) card continuous presentation, and (5) MIM card flashed presentation.


Conclusion/Results

Results

The von Graefe method and the Howell phoria card flashed presentation found significantly less exophoric results than the MIM card. There was no consistent tendency for different examiners to find more exo- or more esophoric results with the phoria measurement techniques used in this study (p = 0.28). Both the Howell phoria card continuous presentation and the MIM card had significantly less variability in interexaminer differences than the Howell phoria card flashed presentation and the von Graefe method (p < 0.05).

 

Conclusions

Results from this study suggest that the Howell phoria card used in a continuous presentation method has an interexaminer repeatability that is not significantly different from the MIM card but greater than the von Graefe method.


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Testimonials


My eight year old daughter was terrified to go to the eye doctor for fear of her eyes being dilated. The doctor was SO KID friendly! He immediately made her comfortable by engaging her in conversation. It was a geat experience.


Joya B.

Dr. Garbus spent an amazing amount of time to solve my very complicated visual problems. Over the years he has continually achieved results beyond what others felt possible. He is always up to date on the latest science. He is great!


Dolores K.

Family Vision Care Valencia makes it so easy. Staff is knows what they are doing and Dr. Garbus is thorough and kept me well informed during the exam.


Kristy B.

I have been coming to Family Vision Center for almost 20 years. Dr. Garbus has been able to help my vision when other doctors could not. Now my kids see him as well. I highly recommend this office!


Autumn C.

The Doctor is very good. I felt on this visit he seemed rushed. I had questions to ask him but he was already with another patient. I still do not know if my eyes are the same , worse, or better.


Howard B.

All the staff is friendly, helpful and knowledgeable, and has been for all the years I have been going there.


Mary Ann H.
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