Authors
Oh, Baek-Lok; Suh, Soh-Youn; Choung, Ho-Kyung; Kim, Seong-Joon

Squinting and Photophobia in Intermittent Exotropia

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Abstract/Introduction

Purpose 

To report factors associated with preoperative squinting, defined as transient eye closure in bright light, and photophobia and the factors affecting improvement of these symptoms postoperatively in intermittent exotropia.

 

Methods 

In this retrospective study, patients (N = 99) were divided into groups according to the presence (n = 54) or absence (n = 45) of preoperative squinting and the presence (n = 64) or absence (n = 35) of photophobia. Clinical characteristics, including overaction or underaction of the oblique muscle and fundus intorsion and extorsion, were compared between the two groups. The squinting and photophobia groups were further categorized into two subgroups each according to postoperative improvement. The extended list of characteristics, including the duration from onset to surgery, postoperative angle of deviation, and fusion, was compared between the two subgroups.


Conclusion/Results

Results 

Preoperatively, 54 (54.5%) and 64 (64.6%) patients had squinting and photophobia, respectively. The coincidence of squinting and photophobia was marginally significant (p = 0.05). Postoperatively, squinting and photophobia disappeared in 64.8 and 59.4% of the patients, respectively. The photophobia group had a younger onset age of strabismus than the nonphotophobia group (39.3 vs. 56.4 months; p = 0.03). Good fusional status at the near range was more common in the nonsquinting group than in the squinting group (74.3 vs. 47.6%; p = 0.02). Superior oblique overaction was significantly more common in the squinting group than in the nonsquinting group (11.1 vs. 0%; p = 0.03). Early surgical correction and successful outcomes were associated with squinting improvement (p = 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively).

 

Conclusions 

More than 50% of patients with intermittent exotropia had squinting or photophobia, and approximately 60% of symptomatic patients experienced improvement postoperatively. The onset of strabismus, near fusion, superior oblique overaction, and fundus intorsion were related to these symptoms. Early surgery and successful eye position realignment were beneficial for improving squinting postoperatively.


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Testimonials


My eight year old daughter was terrified to go to the eye doctor for fear of her eyes being dilated. The doctor was SO KID friendly! He immediately made her comfortable by engaging her in conversation. It was a geat experience.


Joya B.

Dr. Garbus spent an amazing amount of time to solve my very complicated visual problems. Over the years he has continually achieved results beyond what others felt possible. He is always up to date on the latest science. He is great!


Dolores K.

Family Vision Care Valencia makes it so easy. Staff is knows what they are doing and Dr. Garbus is thorough and kept me well informed during the exam.


Kristy B.

I have been coming to Family Vision Center for almost 20 years. Dr. Garbus has been able to help my vision when other doctors could not. Now my kids see him as well. I highly recommend this office!


Autumn C.

The Doctor is very good. I felt on this visit he seemed rushed. I had questions to ask him but he was already with another patient. I still do not know if my eyes are the same , worse, or better.


Howard B.

All the staff is friendly, helpful and knowledgeable, and has been for all the years I have been going there.


Mary Ann H.
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