Authors
ROUSE, MICHAEL W. OD, MS, FAAO; BORSTING, ERIC OD, MS; DELAND, PAUL N. PhD

Reliability of Binocular Vision Measurements Used in the Classification of Convergence Insufficiency

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Abstract/Introduction

Purpose

To evaluate the reliability of binocular vision measurements used in the classification of convergence insufficiency.

 

Methods

Two examiners tested 20 fifth and sixth graders in a school setting who passed a screening of visual acuity, refraction, and binocularity. The tests, conducted using a standard protocol, consisted of von Graefe near heterophoria (NH), phorometric positive fusional vergence (PFV), nearpoint of convergence (NPC), and monocular pushup accommodative amplitude (AA). Each examiner measured each child three consecutive times for each test, on two separate occasions, spaced approximately 1 week apart. Intraexaminer and interexaminer agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), the median absolute difference (MAD), and the coefficient of repeatability (COR).


Conclusion/Results

Results

The within-session reliability of the NH (ICC: 0.95 to 0.99), NPC (ICC: 0.94 to 0.98), and AA (ICC: 0.88 to 0.95) were good, whereas the PFV was less reliable (ICC: 0.71 to 0.94). The intraexaminer reliability between sessions was good for the NPC (ICC: 0.92 and 0.89), less reliable for NH (ICC: 0.81 and 0.81) and AA (ICC: 0.89 and 0.69), and much less reliable for PFV break (ICC: 0.59 and 0.53). Typical between-session PFV differences (MAD) were between 3 and 4 Δ, whereas the COR differences were as large as 12 Δ.

 

Conclusions

Three of the four measures (NH, NPC, and AA) often used in the classification of convergence insufficiency generally have good within-session and between-session reliability. The PFV break was found to have only fair reliability with clinically significant differences between sessions. The large potential test-retest differences found could complicate clinical decision-making in regards to diagnosis and treatment.


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Testimonials


My eight year old daughter was terrified to go to the eye doctor for fear of her eyes being dilated. The doctor was SO KID friendly! He immediately made her comfortable by engaging her in conversation. It was a geat experience.


Joya B.

Dr. Garbus spent an amazing amount of time to solve my very complicated visual problems. Over the years he has continually achieved results beyond what others felt possible. He is always up to date on the latest science. He is great!


Dolores K.

Family Vision Care Valencia makes it so easy. Staff is knows what they are doing and Dr. Garbus is thorough and kept me well informed during the exam.


Kristy B.

I have been coming to Family Vision Center for almost 20 years. Dr. Garbus has been able to help my vision when other doctors could not. Now my kids see him as well. I highly recommend this office!


Autumn C.

The Doctor is very good. I felt on this visit he seemed rushed. I had questions to ask him but he was already with another patient. I still do not know if my eyes are the same , worse, or better.


Howard B.

All the staff is friendly, helpful and knowledgeable, and has been for all the years I have been going there.


Mary Ann H.
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