Authors
Bade, Annette; Boas, Mark; Gallaway, Michael; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Scheiman, Mitchell; Kulp, Marjean T.; Cotter,

Relationship Between Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Convergence Insufficiency

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Abstract/Introduction

Purpose 

The percentage of children who are symptomatic has been shown to increase with the number of signs of convergence insufficiency (CI). Our goal was to investigate whether there is a relationship between the severity of the clinical signs of CI and symptom level reported in children with a three-sign symptomatic CI.

 

Methods 

The Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial enrolled 221 children with symptomatic CI from ages 9 to 17 years. Inclusion criteria included the following three signs of CI: (1) exophoria at near at least 4Δ greater than at distance, (2) insufficient positive fusional vergence (PFV) at near, and (3) a receded near point of convergence (NPC) of 6 cm break or greater. The relationships between the severity of each sign of CI (mild, moderate, and severe) and the level of symptoms as measured by the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) at baseline were evaluated.


Conclusion/Results

Results 

Mean CISS scores were not significantly different between mild, moderate, and severe exophoria (p = 0.60), PFV blur (p = 0.99), Sheard’s criterion (p = 0.89), or NPC break (p = 0.84). There was also no difference between the frequency of subjects scoring at mild, moderate, or severe levels on the CISS and the severity of each sign of CI. Correlations between individual clinical signs and the CISS score were very low and not statistically significant.

 

Conclusions 

Among symptomatic children with a CISS score of 16 or higher and three clinical signs of CI, there is no further association between the severity of the clinical signs and their level of symptoms.


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Testimonials


My eight year old daughter was terrified to go to the eye doctor for fear of her eyes being dilated. The doctor was SO KID friendly! He immediately made her comfortable by engaging her in conversation. It was a geat experience.


Joya B.

Dr. Garbus spent an amazing amount of time to solve my very complicated visual problems. Over the years he has continually achieved results beyond what others felt possible. He is always up to date on the latest science. He is great!


Dolores K.

Family Vision Care Valencia makes it so easy. Staff is knows what they are doing and Dr. Garbus is thorough and kept me well informed during the exam.


Kristy B.

I have been coming to Family Vision Center for almost 20 years. Dr. Garbus has been able to help my vision when other doctors could not. Now my kids see him as well. I highly recommend this office!


Autumn C.

The Doctor is very good. I felt on this visit he seemed rushed. I had questions to ask him but he was already with another patient. I still do not know if my eyes are the same , worse, or better.


Howard B.

All the staff is friendly, helpful and knowledgeable, and has been for all the years I have been going there.


Mary Ann H.
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