Authors
Borsting, Eric; Chase, Chris; Tosha, Chinatsu; Ridder, William H. III

Longitudinal Study of Visual Discomfort Symptoms in College Students

publication date
April 7, 2008
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Abstract/Introduction

Purpose

To determine the variation of visual discomfort symptom reporting in a group of college students over a 1 year period.

 

Methods

Subjects were screened for visual acuity and uncorrected refractive error before participating in the study. A survey of visual discomfort developed by Conlon et al., Vis Cogn 1999;6:637–666, and the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) were administered to a group of 23 college students twice with approximately 1 year between administrations. All subjects also completed two clinical assessments of accommodation and vergence.


Conclusion/Results

Results

The mean time between administrations of the symptom surveys was 13 months. There was no clinically significant mean difference between the first and second administration of both visual discomfort surveys. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.82 for the Conlon et al., Vis Cogn 1999;6:637–666 survey and 0.85 for the CISS. The 95% limits of agreement for the Conlon et al., Vis Cogn 1999;6:637–666 survey was −18.44, 17.92 and for the CISS was −14.36, 13.36. The intraclass correlation coefficient values for the optometric tests ranged from 0.38 to 0.83.

 

Conclusions

Visual discomfort symptoms were found to be stable in the majority of young college students over a 1 year period. However, a minority of students showed large variability between the two administrations of the surveys.


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Testimonials


My eight year old daughter was terrified to go to the eye doctor for fear of her eyes being dilated. The doctor was SO KID friendly! He immediately made her comfortable by engaging her in conversation. It was a geat experience.


Joya B.

Dr. Garbus spent an amazing amount of time to solve my very complicated visual problems. Over the years he has continually achieved results beyond what others felt possible. He is always up to date on the latest science. He is great!


Dolores K.

Family Vision Care Valencia makes it so easy. Staff is knows what they are doing and Dr. Garbus is thorough and kept me well informed during the exam.


Kristy B.

I have been coming to Family Vision Center for almost 20 years. Dr. Garbus has been able to help my vision when other doctors could not. Now my kids see him as well. I highly recommend this office!


Autumn C.

The Doctor is very good. I felt on this visit he seemed rushed. I had questions to ask him but he was already with another patient. I still do not know if my eyes are the same , worse, or better.


Howard B.

All the staff is friendly, helpful and knowledgeable, and has been for all the years I have been going there.


Mary Ann H.
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