Glare exposure resulted in significantly more pronounced eye pain, increased orbicularis muscle activity, and increased trapezius blood flow compared to reading with appropriate lighting. There were no significant differences in posture between the two light conditions. There were also significant associations between orbicularis oculi activity and both trapezius blood flow and neck pain during both conditions.
Results from the current study show that direct glare conditions cause increased eyestrain and orbicularis oculi contraction during reading on a computer screen. This study also indicates that exposure to direct glare affects the trapezius muscle, possibly by an interaction between the visual system, sympathetic nervous system, and head-stabilizing muscles. In addition, there were associations between the use of orbicularis oculi, trapezius blood flow, and development of neck pain independent of the lighting.