Authors
Alvarez, Tara L.; Kim, Eun H.; Vicci, Vincent R.; Dhar, Sunil K.; Biswal, Bharat B.; Barrett, A. M.

Concurrent Vision Dysfunctions in Convergence Insufficiency With Traumatic Brain Injury

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Abstract/Introduction

Purpose 

This study assessed the prevalence of convergence insufficiency (CI) with and without simultaneous vision dysfunctions within the traumatic brain injury (TBI) sample population because although CI is commonly reported with TBI, the prevalence of concurrent visual dysfunctions with CI in TBI is unknown.

 

Methods 

A retrospective analysis of 557 medical records from TBI civilian patients was conducted. Patients were all evaluated by a single optometrist. Visual acuity, oculomotor function, binocular vision function, accommodation, visual fields, ocular health, and vestibular function were assessed. Statistical comparisons between the CI and non-CI, as well as inpatient and outpatient subgroups, were conducted using χ2 and Z tests.


Conclusion/Results

Results 

Approximately 9% of the TBI sample had CI without the following simultaneous diagnoses: saccade or pursuit dysfunction; third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve palsy; visual field deficit; visual spatial inattention/neglect; vestibular dysfunction; or nystagmus. Photophobia with CI was observed in 16.3% (21 of 130), and vestibular dysfunction with CI was observed in 18.5% (24 of 130) of the CI subgroup. Convergence insufficiency and cranial nerve palsies were common and yielded prevalence rates of 23.3% (130 of 557) and 26.9% (150 of 557), respectively, within the TBI sample. Accommodative dysfunction was common within the nonpresbyopic TBI sample, with a prevalence of 24.4% (76 of 314). Visual field deficits or unilateral visual spatial inattention/neglect was observed within 29.6% (80 of 270) of the TBI inpatient subgroup and was significantly more prevalent compared with that of the outpatient subgroup (p < 0.001). Most TBI patients had visual acuities of 20/60 or better in the TBI sample (85%; 473 of 557).

 

Conclusions 

Convergence insufficiency without simultaneous visual or vestibular dysfunctions was observed in about 9% of the visually symptomatic TBI civilian population studied. A thorough visual and vestibular examination is recommended for all TBI patients.


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Testimonials


My eight year old daughter was terrified to go to the eye doctor for fear of her eyes being dilated. The doctor was SO KID friendly! He immediately made her comfortable by engaging her in conversation. It was a geat experience.


Joya B.

Dr. Garbus spent an amazing amount of time to solve my very complicated visual problems. Over the years he has continually achieved results beyond what others felt possible. He is always up to date on the latest science. He is great!


Dolores K.

Family Vision Care Valencia makes it so easy. Staff is knows what they are doing and Dr. Garbus is thorough and kept me well informed during the exam.


Kristy B.

I have been coming to Family Vision Center for almost 20 years. Dr. Garbus has been able to help my vision when other doctors could not. Now my kids see him as well. I highly recommend this office!


Autumn C.

The Doctor is very good. I felt on this visit he seemed rushed. I had questions to ask him but he was already with another patient. I still do not know if my eyes are the same , worse, or better.


Howard B.

All the staff is friendly, helpful and knowledgeable, and has been for all the years I have been going there.


Mary Ann H.
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