Authors
Nandakumar, Krithika; Leat, Susan J.

Bifocals in Down Syndrome Study (BiDS): Design and Baseline Visual Function

publication date
September 10, 2008
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Abstract/Introduction

Purpose

Among children and young people with Down syndrome (DS) there is a high prevalence of reduced accommodation. Prescribing bifocals for these patients has not become fully clinically accepted, although it would be anticipated to improve visual acuity (VA). The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of bifocal correction on VA, visual perceptual skills and early literacy development in children with DS who have reduced accommodation and who are provided with a bifocal correction. This paper describes the study design and the baseline optometric findings.

Methods

We have chosen a longitudinal design with frequent measures of subtests of performance to control for progression with time. The main outcome measures are early literacy and visual perception skills. Secondary outcomes are VA and accommodative function. These are measured at baseline, the participant followed for 6 months when bifocals are prescribed if necessary, and the participants were followed for another 6 months with bifocals.


Conclusion/Results

Results

Fourteen participants with DS aged 8 to 19 years were enrolled. At baseline 79% required a change in their distance spectacle prescription. One hundred percent had reduced accommodation both before and after new single vision glasses were prescribed. None had an adverse reaction to 0.5 or 1% Cyclopentolate. All the subjects were able to perform either a distance or near crowded Patti-pics symbols test and 93% were able to perform both. There was a significant improvement of near VA with the new single vision spectacles (p = 0.015). The mean binocular distance VA was 0.362 ± 0.17 logMAR whereas binocular near VA was 0.489 ± 0.235.

Conclusion

This study confirms previous findings of a high prevalence of reduced accommodation and shows that near VA is reduced compared to distance VA. The present results indicate that all subjects might benefit from bifocals.


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Testimonials


My eight year old daughter was terrified to go to the eye doctor for fear of her eyes being dilated. The doctor was SO KID friendly! He immediately made her comfortable by engaging her in conversation. It was a geat experience.


Joya B.

Dr. Garbus spent an amazing amount of time to solve my very complicated visual problems. Over the years he has continually achieved results beyond what others felt possible. He is always up to date on the latest science. He is great!


Dolores K.

Family Vision Care Valencia makes it so easy. Staff is knows what they are doing and Dr. Garbus is thorough and kept me well informed during the exam.


Kristy B.

I have been coming to Family Vision Center for almost 20 years. Dr. Garbus has been able to help my vision when other doctors could not. Now my kids see him as well. I highly recommend this office!


Autumn C.

The Doctor is very good. I felt on this visit he seemed rushed. I had questions to ask him but he was already with another patient. I still do not know if my eyes are the same , worse, or better.


Howard B.

All the staff is friendly, helpful and knowledgeable, and has been for all the years I have been going there.


Mary Ann H.
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